Jennifer M. Rutkowsky, Linda L. Lee, Michelle Puchowicz, Mari S. Golub, Douglas E. Befroy, Dennis W. Wilson, Steven Anderson, Gary Cline, Jason Bini, Kamil Borkowski, Trina A. Knotts, John C. Rutledge. Reduced cognitive function, increased blood-brain-barrier transport and inflammatory responses, and altered brain metabolites in LDLr -/-and C57BL/6 mice fed a western diet.  PLoS One 13(2):e0191909, 2018.  PMC5812615

Kitt Falk Petersen, Douglas E. Befroy, Sylvie Dufour, Douglas L. Rothman, Gerald I. Shulman. Assessment of Hepatic Mitochondrial Oxidation and Pyruvate Cycling in NAFLD by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cell Metab. 24(1): 167-171, 2016.  PMC4946568


Dominik H Pesta, Dimitrios N Tsirigotis, Douglas E. Befroy, Daniel Caballero, Michael J. Jurczak, Yasmeen Rahimi, Gary W. Cline, Sylvie Dufour, Andreas L. Birkenfeld, Douglas L. Rothman, Thomas O. Carpenter, Karl Insogna, Kitt Falk Petersen, Clemens Bergwitz, Gerald I Shulman. Hypophosphatemia promotes lower rates of muscle ATP synthesis.  FASEB J. 30(10): 3378-3387, 2016.  PMC5024687


Douglas E. Befroy, Rachel J. Perry, Nimit Jain, Sylvie Dufour, Gary W. Cline, Jeff Trimmer, Julia Brosnan, Douglas L. Rothman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Gerald I. Shulman. Direct assessment of hepatic mitochondrial oxidative and anaplerotic fluxes in humans using dynamic 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  Nat Med. 20: 98-102, 2014. PMC3947269


Ryan G. Larson, Douglas E. Befroy, Jane Kent-Braun. High-Intensity Interval Training Increases in vivo Oxidative Capacity With No Effect on Pi -> ATP Rate in Resting Human Muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 304(5): R333-42 2013.  PMC3602722


Douglas E. Befroy, Kitt Falk Petersen, Douglas L. Rothman, Gerald I. Shulman. 31P-magnetization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of in vivo metabolism.  Diabetes. 61: 2669-2678, 2012.  PMC3478545


Tiago C. Alves, Douglas E. Befroy, Richard G. Kibbey, Mario Kahn, Roberto Codella, Rui A. Carvalho, Kitt F Petersen, Gerald I. Shulman. Regulation of Hepatic Fat and Glucose Oxidation in Rats with Lipid-Induced Hepatic Insulin Resistance.  Hepatology. 53: 1175-1181, 2011.  PMC3077048


Douglas E. Befroy, Gerald I. Shulman. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Human Metabolism. Diabetes 60: 1361-1369, 2011. PMC3292308


Ian R. Lanza, Michael A. Tevald, Douglas E. Befroy, Jane A. Kent-Braun. Intracellular Energetics and Critical PO2 in Resting Ischemic Human Skeletal Muscle In Vivo.  Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 295:R1415-1422, 2010. PMC2980454


Mitchell CS, Savage DB, Dufour S, Schoenmakers N, Murgatroyd P, Befroy D, Halsall D, Northcott S, Raymond-Barker P, Curran S, Henning E, Keogh J, Owen P, Lazarus J, Rothman DL, Farooqi IS, Shulman GI, Chatterjee K, Petersen KF. Resistance to thyroid hormone is associated with raised energy expenditure, muscle mitochondrial uncoupling, and hyperphagia.  J Clin Invest. 120:1345-1354, 2010.  PMC2846038

Douglas E Befroy, Kitt Falk Petersen, Douglas L. Rothman, Gerald I. Shulman. Assessment of in vivo mitochondrial metabolism by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  Meth Enzymol. 457: 373-393, 2009.  PMC3077057


Michael A. Tevald, Ian R. Lanza, Douglas E Befroy, Jane A. Kent-Braun. Intramyocellular oxygenation during ischemic muscle contractions in vivo.  Eur J Appl Physiol. 106: 333-43, 2009.  PMC2716118


Douglas E. Befroy, Cheol Soo Choi, Roberto Codella, Sheene Kim, Richard M. Reznick, Yu-Jin Hwang, Zhen-Xiang Liu, Hui-Young Lee, Alberto Distefano, Varman T. Samuel, Dongyan Zhang, Gary W. Cline, Christoph Handschin, Jiandie Lin, Kitt F. Petersen, Bruce M. Spiegelman, Gerald I. Shulman. Paradoxical Effects of Increased Expression of PGC-1α on Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Insulin Stimulated Muscle Glucose Metabolism.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 105(50): 19926-31, 2008.  PMC2598730


Douglas E. Befroyy, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sylvie Dufour, Graeme F Mason, Douglas L. Rothman, Gerald I. Shulman. Increased Substrate Oxidation and Mitochondrial Uncoupling in Skeletal Muscle of Endurance Trained Individuals.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 105: 16701-16706, 2008.  PMC2570428


Danielle M. Wigmore, Douglas E. Befroy, Ian R. Lanza, Jane A. Kent-Braun. Contraction frequency modulates muscle fatigue and intracellular oxygenation during incremental contractions in humans. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 33: 915-921, 2008.  PMC2716124


Hyeonjin Kim, Sara E Taksali, Sylvie Dufour, Douglas Befroy, T. Robin Goodman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Gerald I. Shulman, Sonia Caprio, R. Todd Constable. A Comparative MR Study of Hepatic Fat Quantification Using Single-voxel Proton Spectroscopy, Two-point Dixon and Three-point IDEAL.  Magn Reson Med. 59(3): 521-527, 2008.  PMC2818363


Kitt Falk Petersen, Sylvie Dufour, David B. Savage, Stefan Bilz, Gina Solomon, Shin Yonemitsu, Gary W. Cline, Douglas Befroy, Laura Zemany, Barbara B. Kahn, Xenophon Papademetris, Douglas L. Rothman, Gerald I. Shulman. Inaugural Article: The role of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104: 12587-12594, 2007.  PMC1924794


Douglas E. Befroy, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sylvie Dufour, Graeme F. Mason, Robin A. de Graaf, Douglas L. Rothman, Gerald I. Shulman. Impaired Mitochondrial Substrate Oxidation in Muscle of Insulin-Resistant Offspring of Type 2 Diabetic Patients.  Diabetes. 56: 1376-1381, 2007.  PMC2995532


Richard M. Reznick, Haihong Zong, Ji Li, Katsutaro Morino, Irene K. Moore, Hannah J. Yu, Zhen-Xiang Liu, Jianying Dong, Kirsty J. Mustard, Simon A. Hawley, Douglas Befroy, Marc Pypaert, D. Grahame Hardie, Lawrence H. Young and Gerald I. Shulman. Aging-associated reductions in AMP-activated protein kinase activity and mitochondrial biogenesis.  Cell Metab. 5: 151-6, 2007.  PMC1885964


Kitt Falk Petersen, Sylvie Dufour, Jing Feng, Douglas Befroy, James Dziura, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli, Gerald I. Shulman. Increased Prevalence of Insulin Resistance and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Asian Indian Men.   Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 103: 18273-18277, 2006.  PMC1693873


Thomas O. Carpenter, Maria C. DeLucia, Jane Hongyuan Zhang, Gina Bejnerowicz, Lisa Tartamella, James Dziura, Kitt Falk Petersen, Douglas Befroy, Dorothy Cohen. A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91: 4866-4872, 2006.  PMC2995550


Ian R. Lanza, Danielle M. Wigmore, Douglas E. Befroy, Jane A. Kent-Braun. In-vivo ATP Production during free-flow and ischemic muscle contractions in humans.  J Physiol. 577: 353-367, 2006.  PMC2000678


Katsutaro Morino, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sylvie Dufour, Douglas Befroy, Jared Frattini, Nadine Shatzkes, Susanne Neschen, Morris F. White, Stefan Bilz, Saki Sono, Marc Pypaert and Gerald I. Shulman. Reduced mitochondrial density and increased IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in muscle of insulin-resistant offspring of Type 2 diabetic parents.  J Clin Invest. 115: 3587-3593, 2005.  PMC1280967


Ian R. Lanza, Douglas e. Befroy, Jane A. Kent-Braun. Age-related changes in ATP-producing pathways in human skeletal muscle vivo.  J Appl Physiol. 99: 1736-1744, 2005.  PMID: 16002769

Kitt Falk Petersen, Sylvie Dufour, Douglas Befroy, Michael Lehrke, Rosa E Hendler, Gerald I. Shulman. Reversal of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia by moderate weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes.  Diabetes. 54: 603-8, 2005.  PMC2995496


Varman T. Samuel, Zhen-Xiang Liu, Xianqin Qu, Benjamin D. Elder, Stefan Bilz, Douglas Befroy, Anthony J. Romanelli, Gerald I. Shulman. Mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  J Biol Chem. 279: 32345-32353, 2004. PMID: 15166226


Kitt Falk Petersen, Sylvie Dufour, Douglas Befroy, Rina Reyes, and Gerald I. Shulman. Impaired mitochondrial activity in insulin-resistant offspring of Type 2 diabetics.  N Engl J Med. 350: 664-671, 2004.  PMC2995502


Kitt Falk Petersen, Douglas Befroy, Sylvie Dufour, James Dzuira, Charlotte Ariyan, Douglas L. Rothman, Loretta DiPietro, Gary W. Cline and Gerald I. Shulman. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the elderly: possible role in insulin resistance.  Science. 300: 1140-1142, 2003.  PMC3004429


Kitt Falk Petersen, Elif Arioglu Oral, Sylvie Dufour, Douglas Befroy, Charlotte Ariyan, Chunli Yu, Gary W Cline, Simeon I. Taylor, Phillip Gorden, Gerald I. Shulman. Leptin reverses insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in patients with severe lipodystrophy.  J Clin Invest. 109(10): 1345-50, 2002.  PMC150981


Adam B. Mayerson, Ripudaman S. Hundal, Sylvie Dufour, Vincent Lebon, Douglas Befroy, Gary W. Cline, Staffan Enocksson, Silvio E. Inzucchi, Gerald I. Shulman, Kitt F. Petersen. The effects of rosiglitazone on insulin sensitivity, lipolysis, and hepatic and skeletal muscle triglyceride content in patients with type 2 diabetes.  Diabetes. 51(3): 797-802, 2002.  PMC2995527


Douglas E. Befroy, Trevor Powell, George K. Radda Kieran Clarke. Modulation of contractile function, pHi, and ischemic damage in perfused guinea pig heart.  Am J Physiol 276: H1236-1244, 1999. PMID: 10199848


Yair Shachar-Hill, Douglas E. Befroy, Phillip E. Pfeffer, R. George Ratcliffe. Using bulk magnetic susceptibility to resolve internal and external signals in the NMR spectra of plant tissues.   J Magn Reson. 127: 17-25, 1997.